Animated Image of a Woman Struggling To Fall Asleep

Insomnia:
A Complete Guide About the Causes, the Diagnosis and Prevention

by Rachael Gilpin,  Expert Reviewed by Dr. Alex Dimitriu M.D.

Nothing on this website is intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You should always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. The contents of this website are for informational purposes only.

Insomnia can impair your functional abilities and negatively impact your work, relationships, and even your sexual health. Indicators of insomnia can include more than difficulty sleeping; it extends to irritability, constant worrying about sleep, and difficulty sustaining attention. Identifying the issue is half the battle, but minor changes to your daily habits can help.

Section 1

Symptoms of Insomnia

Section 3

Complications of Insomnia

Section 5

Other Types of Insomnia

Section 7

Insomnia: Fast Facts

Section 9

Preventing and Overcoming Insomnia

Section 2

Causes of
Insomnia

Section 4

Defining the 5 Types of Insomnia

Section 6

Comorbidities and At-Risk Groups

Section 8

Diagnosing Insomnia

Section 10

Common Medications Used for Insomnia

Section 1

Symptoms of
Insomnia

Section 3

Complications of Insomnia

Section 5

Other Types of Insomnia

Section 7

Insomnia: Fast Facts

Section 9

Preventing and Overcoming Insomnia

Section 2

Causes of
Insomnia

Section 4

Defining the 5 Types of Insomnia

Section 6

Comorbidities and At-Risk Groups

Section 8

Diagnosing Insomnia

Section 10

Common Medications Used for Insomnia

Symptoms of Insomnia

Insomnia can present in various ways, sometimes eluding identification. Modern culture often praises busy individuals with sleep-deprived schedules, making symptoms easy to miss. However, it’s critical to know how insomnia looks, because the condition could be costing you sleep[1], and affecting your health.

Seeking treatment is crucial for those experiencing signs of insomnia, and awareness of symptoms can aid in classification.

Difficulty Falling Asleep

Issues falling asleep at night are not uncommon, especially for those managing high levels of stress. However, struggling with frequent bouts of sleeping trouble for prolonged periods could indicate insomnia and lead to more significant health concerns like depression or concentration issues.

Illustration of a Man Waking up In The Middle of The Night

Frequent Night Awakenings

Lying in bed awake or frequently waking up in the middle of the night could mark an issue with insomnia. Keeping an eye on how often this occurs by maintaining a sleep log could help identify insomnia so you can make a recovery plan.

Waking Up Too Early

Regularly waking up well before your alarm clock rings when you know you need the rest can feel profoundly frustrating. Tracking the frequency at which this occurs through a bedside sleep log could be essential in recognizing a more significant condition like insomnia.

Illustration of a Woman Who Fell Asleep At Her Computer Desk

Daytime Tiredness

Frequently noticing yourself struggling to get through your day due to feeling overly tired, but not necessarily sleepy, is a sign of insomnia. Many individuals have experienced feeling tired at work on occasion, but repeated and continued issues with feeling tired could affect your life in profound ways and are worthy of treatment.

Illustration of a Sad Woman Traveling to Work

Irritability

Those with high-pressure jobs or professions that manage frequent interactions with the public often endure greater stress levels, leading to irritability. Moods are incredibly fluid, but irritability lasting for significant periods could indicate severe sleep issues.

Difficulty Sustaining Attention

Tiredness and attention deficit often present alongside one another; this struggle could appear to be  ADHD or poor sleep hygiene. However, frequent challenges with concentration might be telling of an underlying condition.

Illustration of a Tired Woman Suffering to Fall Asleep

Constant Worrying About Sleep

Continuous anxiety around going to bed or getting enough rest is often a sign of a larger issue like insomnia. The mere presence of anxiety could exacerbate the problem, making it even more challenging to get the sleep you need. However, learning to relax is one of the most critical components to combatting the issue.

Causes of Insomnia

Many individuals are constantly managing multiple stressors at once, many of which individuals wave away are mere aspects of daily life. However, when not mindfully looked after, these common stressors could trigger severe sleep issues.

01

Stress

Managing a high-pressure job, juggling college courses, health issues, family problems, or financial concerns could lead to trouble sleeping. Stressful events or traumatic experiences can significantly impact our bodies and minds. Incidents like a car accident, abuse, death, or divorce could all trigger insomnia.

Illustration of a Lady Sitting on a Plane with a Travel Pillow around Her Neck
02

Travel

Disrupting your circadian rhythm as a result of long-distance travel[2] or prolonged wakefulness could induce insomnia. Your environment and circumstances can considerably affect your body’s ability to regulate, and changing the times you sleep, eat, and work could contribute to sleep issues.
03

Poor Sleep Hygiene

Research indicates blue light from screens suppresses melatonin[3], the hormone naturally produced when daylight dims and helps us fall asleep. Lying in bed on your phone or watching TV before bedtime can feel relaxing at the moment, but doing so could be disruptive to your rest habits.
Illustration of a Person Using Their Phone Late at Night
04

Medication

Common medications for attention deficit disorder, depression, anxiety, and other conditions could harm one’s ability to fall asleep within a reasonable timeframe. Treatments that include stimulants or SSRIs like Adderall or Lexapro might disrupt sleep rhythms leading to insomnia.

Illustration of a Man Smoking Weed Before Bed
05

Caffeine, Nicotine, Alcohol or Addiction

Alcohol, even in small amounts, could affect rest. While smoking is often associated with relaxation, nicotine is a stimulant[4] and can keep you awake. Caffeine is enormously common worldwide; however, the stimulating quality doesn’t work well with slumber.

Complications of Insomnia

Insomnia may arise due to acute stress or overextending oneself, potentially deterring an individual’s long-term goals, mental fitness, or physical health. If you’re dismissing sleep problems believing them to be insignificant, think again.

Heart Problems

Illustration of Tom and His Heart Having High Blood Pressure
The CDC states that quality rest is imperative to heart health and that sleep is not to be dismissed as optional. Further, it reports that a lack of sleep can contribute to high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and obesity, all of which can profoundly impact cardiovascular health[5].

Mental Health Issues

Mental health and sleep are closely intertwined, and according to Dr. Charles L. Raison, MD[6], anxiety commonly exists alongside insomnia, known as a comorbid condition. Further, insomnia often precedes depression, as opposed to anxiety which often precedes insomnia. Mood conditions and substance abuse disorders are also believed to correlate with insomnia.

Appearance

Illustration of a Lady Looking at Dark Circles over Her Eyes in the Mirror

Prolonged sleep deprivation can affect one’s appearance, potentially leading to premature wrinkles, dark circles, and paler skin[7]. According to Stockholm University, how fatigued a person appears could even alter the way others behave towards them because fatigue can make the corners of the mouth droop, making a person look sadder than they are.

Pain

Pain has a long history with insomnia. When you’re uncomfortable, it’s typically challenging to sleep soundly; thus, chronic pain can trigger insomnia and vice versa. These related issues often develop into a detrimental cycle[8], as lack of restorative sleep makes the pain worse, and pain prevents individuals from sleeping well, potentially affecting one’s immune system.

Breathing Issues & Sleep Apnea

Insomniacs often have undiagnosed sleep apnea and vice versa, which makes pinpointing the cause challenging to identify. Sleep apnea patients may struggle with insomnia because, as they fight with breathing, the brain may wake itself up to avoid the cessation[9] of breathing.

Pregnancy Complications

Tired Pregnant Lady Struggling to Fall Asleep
According to the Wolters Kluwer Epidemiology Journal, women who are sleep deprived have a higher risk of having a preterm birth[10]. Other complications include high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, pulmonary hypertension, and preeclampsia. Preeclampsia could increase the risk of death in both the child and pregnant person.

Slowed Metabolism

Sleep allows our bodies to reset and recharge daily, without which our internal rhythm can fall out of order. According to Penn State University[11], restricting sleep for only a few days can adjust how we metabolize fats. When we don’t sleep, we eat more than we need to compensate for the lack of energy, potentially leading to weight gain or obesity.

Immune Health Issues

The Mayo Clinic reports that a lack of sleep can affect how efficiently our bodies fight viruses and recover after falling ill. During sleep, the immune system produces cytokines, which are proteins that promote sleep. Cytokines are also needed[12] to fight infection and stress, and sleep deprivation reduces the body’s production of these.

Animated Image of Microbes Having Party Inside Mans Gut

Defining the 5 Types of Insomnia

Transient Insomnia

Transient insomnia typically arises due to jet lag or over-tiredness and may not require treatment. Individuals could experience this after traveling for an extended period or after a vacation with minimal rest, in which case, a simple solution like melatonin supplements could be helpful when getting your habits back on track.

Transient insomnia may recur from time to time, in which case it could be considered intermittent. However, if you struggle with slumber most nights for longer than a month, you could be dealing with a chronic issue requiring professional attention.

Illustration of a Woman Having Too Much on Her Mind and Can't Sleep

Short-term Insomnia

Acute or short-term insomnia could last anywhere from a few days to a couple of months[13] at a time. Short-term insomnia typically occurs due to stressful events or experiences such as starting a new job, moving house, a change in environment, or the death of a loved one.

 

Correlations have been found between anxiety and sleep cycles[14]. It’s not uncommon for individuals to experience rumination about the stressor before sleep, hindering rest. As the anxiety subsides and the stressor resolves, typically insomnia will as well.

Illustration of a Tired Looking Woman Having Breakfast

Chronic Insomnia

Chronic insomnia can last over a month or for years at a time. In some cases, chronic insomnia is a primary issue, meaning that it arises without any other coexisting diseases. 

 

However, many instances are secondary to primary health issues. Secondary health effects happen due to more significant underlying medical conditions or as a consequence of certain medications. 

 

Antidepressants, focus aides, and anti-anxiety drugs are examples of medications that commonly have adverse side effects surrounding rest. If you’re having trouble sleeping through the night, your treatment may need a second look.

Primary Insomnia

Primary Insomnia is not associated with any lifestyle issues, psychiatric conditions, or medical causes; it appears alone and usually persists for many years, sometimes beginning in childhood. Those who struggle with primary insomnia could experience sleep issues for one night at a time frequently or many nights in a row.

 

People who have a history of this condition are also known to experience sleep state misperception[15] (SSM), commonly referred to as paradoxical insomnia. With paradoxical insomnia, individuals will feel as though they’re struggling with insomnia even though they are getting adequate rest nor experience daytime sleepiness; yet, they may still battle with other symptoms.

Illustration of a Frustrated Woman Who Can't Fall Asleep

Comorbid Insomnia

Comorbid insomnia arises as a response to other psychiatric or physiological issues. However, after comorbid insomnia is triggered, it doesn’t necessarily resolve with the coexisting disorder. The majority of insomnia cases fall under this category.

 

This type of insomnia can also exacerbate the existing illness and even hinder treatment. For example, an individual who struggles with depression might take a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), like Lexapro or Zoloft. While these can be excellent in treating mood disorders, typical side effects include weight gain, sexual dysfunction, and insomnia; thus, the presence of insomnia could complicate treatment.

Other Types of Insomnia

Postpartum Insomnia

Pregnancy and giving birth can cause significant shifts in a person’s hormones. Some of these hormones work with chemicals to regulate your slumber patterns and this shift can disrupt your sleep[16]. Over half of new parents report experiencing some version of “the baby blues,” and many will struggle with postpartum depression or insomnia[17].

 

The issue can be triggered by a variety of conditions such as daily anxiety regarding activities or feelings of overwhelm about the future with their new child. Keep in mind this is normal to experience when you’ve suddenly gained a significant responsibility. Fortunately, there are many resources[18] to help you cope.

 

Get More Info: How to Deal With Postpartum Insomnia

New mom struggling with Postpartum Insomnia

Menopause and Insomnia

Sleep disruption is common during the various menopausal phases, and numbers regarding how many women experience the issue ranges greatly as self-reporting is often vastly underestimated[19] because many instances go untreated. Studies consistently show a correlation between menopause and insomnia, potentially due to hot flashes and night sweats.


The decline of estrogen during menopause has been shown to contribute to disrupted sleep patterns as a result of menopause. Disrupted slumber patterns often arise due to menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, sweating, anxiety, and depressive moods. Anxiety and depression often trigger lack of sleep or early morning waking, and the correlation could work conversely as well.

Comorbidities and At-Risk Groups

People with other Sleep Disorders

Partner Can't Sleep Because The Other One Snores

Dopamine is the chemical in our brains that soothes muscle movement and is typically used to treat restless leg syndrome (RLS), but it’s not always successful. However, hope may be on the horizon; according to a study by John Hopkins University School of Medicine[20], a correlation was made between glutamate— a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in arousal and wakefulness— and those with RLS, potentially paving the way to a new treatment.

 

Sleep apnea commonly triggers insomnia, and insomniacs often have undiagnosed sleep apnea, making the root cause difficult to identify. Sleep apnea can lead to insomnia because the brain’s survival instinct actively looks to avoid falling asleep to ensure you keep breathing.

People with Chronic Pain

Insomnia and fatigue are typical markers of fibromyalgia, and non-restorative sleep could decrease your pain threshold, further exacerbating fibromyalgia symptoms.

Those who suffer from chronic migraines often report struggling with insomnia[21]. However, the cause behind the frequent correlation between them is debated. Managing both conditions may put you at a higher risk of depression and anxiety as well.

 

Some experts believe that individuals with cancer[22] are more likely to suffer from insomnia, which could explain the extreme lack of sleep caused by severe health issues. Conversely, managing the stress that a cancer diagnosis brings could also spark insomnia.

People with Addictions

Animation of Addicted Man Having Nightmares

According to the Addiction Center, which connects individuals with rehabilitation, those who have insomnia are five to ten times more likely to suffer from substance abuse than those who don’t. This statistic could be explained by the highly addictive qualities[23] of sleeping prescription pills or the false belief that sleep deprivation can be resolved via drugs.

 

Further, insomniacs often turn to alcohol to help with sleep, as it allows some individuals to relax. However, alcohol exacerbates insomnia symptoms, creating a vicious cycle. If you know someone struggling with addiction, it’s important that they seek help as soon as possible[24].

People with Mental Health Disorders

While the cause of the correlation is still debated, according to Duke University[25], mental health and insomnia have strong ties. Insomnia seems to be a predecessor to anxiety and depression, and conversely, depression and anxiety may predispose individuals to insomnia.

 

Those who struggle with bipolar disorder may experience insomnia as well. Those dealing with this condition may appear manic for prolonged periods, feeling overly happy and energized, coupled with extreme lows and bouts of depression.

Older Adults

Age, menopause, and lifestyle changes could contribute to insomnia. Those who go through menopause often experience a reduction in progesterone, a hormone that many people don’t realize aids in sleep. 

 

Progesterone is known to help regulate your body, your cycle, and it can even ease anxiety. The chemical has a sedative effect and is often prescribed in specific doses to be taken before bed. 

 

Additionally, menopause symptoms commonly include hot flashes and night sweats as well, which can wake you up during sleep due to discomfort.

Illustration of an Older Man Sleeping

Insomnia: Fast Facts

Insomnia could negatively affect how you respond to stress, decrease the effectiveness of your immune system, and disrupt your overall health.

 

The condition could lead to various complications including:

 

  • Depression: A lack of sleep could spark a decrease in your neurotransmitters, which are responsible for regulating mood.
  • Imparied Cognition: Without enough rest you could damage the way you process information and retrieve memories.
  • Anxiety: Less sleep exacerbates mood issues like anxiety.
  • Circadian Rhythm: When you get poor sleep, your natural internal clock becomes deregulated, and could weaken your white blood cell count and your physical response to stress.
  • Higher Risk of Life-Threatening Health Issues: Lack of rest has been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and hypertension.
  • Food Cravings: Poor sleep hygiene can alter the balance of hormones like ghrelin and leptin— hormones that make you feel hungry and satiated.
Dangers of Sleep Deprivation Infographic

Find Out More: 10 Insomnia Statistics That Might Surprise You

Diagnosing Insomnia

When to Seek Diagnosis

When your sleep issues start to impact your mood, well-being, and life negatively, we recommend seeking a professional diagnosis and treatment. Suffering through sleep loss won’t benefit anyone— certainly not yourself nor those close to you.

Who Can Diagnose Insomnia

A Doctor Listening to a Patient Illustration

Your primary care physician or a board-certified sleep specialist may diagnose you with insomnia. You may be asked to keep a sleep log for a few weeks so they can assess your slumber habits before prescribing treatment.

How Insomnia is Diagnosed

Diagnosing insomnia isn’t as straightforward as other conditions as there is no test to identify the disorder. Sometimes a blood test is done to check for thyroid conditions or other problems related to poor sleep. 

 

Otherwise, your doctor will likely ask sleep-related questions or ask you to keep a sleep log for a few weeks. Alternatively, you could be referred to a sleep study where various tests might be conducted to monitor your brain waves, breathing, eye movements, or heartbeat.

Preventing and Overcoming Insomnia

Create a Reliable Sleep Schedule

Practicing good sleep hygiene is critical for healthy rest. Your body thrives on regularity, so creating a consistent bedtime and nighttime routine can often give your body the anchor it needs to create a stable rhythm.

Avoid Stimulating Activities in the Evening

A Woman Using Phone Laptop and Watching TV Before Bed

Eating a large meal right before bedtime isn’t ideal, as your system will still be working to break down nutrients for a couple of hours following. We also advise against screen time, as blue light essentially winds your brain up, making it more difficult to relax your mind come bedtime.

Practice a Healthy Lifestyle

Poor diet and lack of exercise can have adverse effects on our sleep and, subsequently, our health. Making small changes in our daily habits like adding more vegetables, cutting back on alcohol, or going for regular walks could profoundly improve your rest.

Reserve the Bedroom for Sleep-Related Activities

couple laying in bed illustration

Separating work and the bedroom may not always be possible, but doing so could help sleep. Allowing your brain to only associate your bedroom with sleep or sex can help your brain relax come nightfall. Mentally pairing your bedroom with sleep and sex only is ideal.

Talk to Your Doctor About Medication

Medication can be beneficial for insomnia. However, most sleep medication falls under the umbrella of controlled substances and must be administered and taken with caution to avoid dependency or addiction. Fortunately, with the recent rise of holistic health treatments, there are many alternatives if needed.

Common Medications Used for Insomnia

Alternative Therapies

Meditation

Illustration of a Woman Meditating Before Going to Bed

According to a study cited by the Harvard Health Blog[26], two groups of similarly aged adults were put in either a sleep education course or a mindfulness meditation course for six weeks. Both groups met for two hours, once a week.

 

By the end of the six weeks, those participating in the mindfulness meditation course reported less insomnia— as well as less depression and fatigue— than those in the sleep education course, indicating a strong correlation between mindfulness meditation and insomnia relief.

Essential Oils

Illustration of a Lady Using a Difuser for Aromatherapy Before Bed

Essential oils have become more prevalent in recent years, and for a good reason. According to a Hungkuang University study[27], aromatherapy reduced anxiety and improved sleep quality in post-surgery patients. Further, the study showed that the therapy enhanced sleep quality in nurses who work rotating night shifts, pointing to a connection between essential oils, aromatherapy, and sleep health.

 

View Our Guide: Best Essential Oils for Sleep

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

CBT is a common approach in psychology, and many sleep specialists use a technique called CBTI (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia) to treat patients who struggle with sleep. The treatment consists of various strategies[28], including shifting the mind’s focus from “trying to sleep” to “allowing sleep to happen,” and sometimes incorporates strategically timed exposure to bright light.

Biofeedback Therapy

Illustration of A Doctor Doing Research on Patient Who Suffers from Insomnia

Biofeedback Therapy is an advanced technique used to treat insomnia by using a computer, specialized software, and body sensors to record stress levels. The therapy helps by teaching the patient greater awareness[29] of their body. As a result, the awareness allows the patient to control their heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension better to reduce stress, letting them sleep.

Seeing a Dietician

A study in 2018 observed a correlation between tart cherries and insomnia relief, showing a definitive connection between cherry juice and sleep time[30] and sleep efficiency. Still, we don’t always get the nutrients we need.

 

Sugar, caffeine, and other substances commonly found in many foods could interfere with rest. Holistic remedies for various ailments have gained traction in recent years, including sleep; you could be enjoying better rest with a few diet adjustments.

Therapeutic Massage

Full Body Massage- Illustration

The CDC attributes sleep deprivation as a contributor to numerous chronic diseases like obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes and recommends massage to treat stress[31]. According to a study cited by the American Massage Therapy Association, there are correlations between massage therapy and a person’s insomnia severity index (ISI), with massage helping reduce one’s ISI[32].

[1] Isabelle Pikörn, “The Dangers Of Being Too Busy”, Insight Timer Blog, 29 Mar. 2021

[2] “Insomnia”, Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 15 Oct. 2016

[3] Kathleen E. West, et al., “Blue Light from Light-Emitting Diodes Elicits a Dose-Dependent Suppression of Melatonin in Humans”, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1 Mar. 2011

[4] Andreas Jaehne, et al., “Effects of Nicotine on Sleep during Consumption, Withdrawal and Replacement Therapy”, Sleep Medicine Reviews, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 9 Oct. 2009

[5] “How Does Sleep Affect Your Heart Health?”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4 Jan. 2021

[6] Raison Charles, “The Far-Reaching Effects of Insomnia on Mental Health”, Psychiatry & Behavioral Health Learning Network, 6 May 2017

[7] “Study Reveals the Face of Sleep Deprivation”, American Academy of Sleep Medicine – Association for Sleep Clinicians and Researchers, 13 Mar. 2018

[8] William Deardorff, PhD., “Chronic Pain and Insomnia: Breaking the Cycle”, Spine, 12 Dec. 2016

[9] “Sleep Apnea & Insomnia: Is There a Connection?”, Sleep Dallas Blog, 28 Aug. 2019

[10] “Sleep Patterns in Late Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth… : Epidemiology”, Sleep Patterns in Late Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth and Fetal Growth Restriction – LWW, Sept. 2011

[11] Kristie Auman-Bauer, “Sleep Deprivation May Lead to Slower Metabolism, Weight Gain”, Penn State University, 11 Apr. 2021

[12] “Can Lack of Sleep Make You Sick?”, Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 28 Nov. 2018

[13] “Types of Insomnia”, Stanford Health Care (SHC) – Stanford Medical Center, September 12, 2017

[14] David A. Anderson, et al., “The Impact of Stress on Sleep: Pathogenic Sleep Reactivity as a Vulnerability to Insomnia and Circadian Disorders”, Journal of Sleep Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 24 May 2018

[15] Heidi Moawad, “Primary Insomnia: A Lifelong Problem”, Psychiatric Times, 10 Sept. 2020

[16] “Menopause and Insomnia”, Women's Health Concern, 15 Dec. 2020

[17] “Statistics on Postpartum Depression – Postpartum Depression Resources”, Postpartum Depression, 3 May 2019

[18] “Support Groups for Postpartum Depression – How They Can Help”, Postpartum Depression, 3 May 2019

[19] “Menopause and Insomnia”, Women's Health Concern, 15 Dec. 2020

[20] “Restless Legs Syndrome, Insomnia And Brain Chemistry: A Tangled Mystery Solved?”, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Based in Baltimore, Maryland, 7 May 2013

[21] Jeanetta C. Rains, “Sleep and Migraine: Assessment and Treatment of Comorbid Sleep Disorders”, American Headache Society, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 10 Aug. 2018

[22] Susan London, “Insomnia with Very Short Sleep Duration Is a Risk Factor for Cancer”, CHEST Physician, 18 Jan. 2019

[23] “Insomnia and Addiction”, Addiction Center, 25 Mar. 2021

[24] “SAMHSA's National Helpline”, SAMHSA, 28 Jan. 2021

[25] “A Vicious Cycle: Insomnia, Anxiety, and Depression”, Duke Health, 27 Aug. 2013

[26] Julie Corliss, “Mindfulness Meditation Helps Fight Insomnia, Improves Sleep”, Harvard Health Blog, 17 June 2020

[27] Ying-Ying Chang, et al., “The Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep Quality of Nurses on Monthly Rotating Night Shifts”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM, Hindawi, 2017

[28] “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI)”, Stanford Health Care (SHC) – Stanford Medical Center, 12 Sept. 2017

[29] “Biofeedback-Based Treatments for Insomnia: Society of Clinical Psychology”, Society of Clinical Psychology | Division 12 of the American Psychological Association, 8 Mar. 2018

[30] Losso JN; Finley JW; Karki N; Liu AG; Prudente A; Tipton R; Yu Y ; Greenway FL, “Pilot Study of the Tart Cherry Juice for the Treatment of Insomnia and Investigation of Mechanisms”, American Journal of Therapeutics, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 25 Apr. 2018

[31] “Dealing with Stress after a Traumatic Event”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 16 Dec. 2020

[32] “Massage Therapy Can Help Improve Sleep: AMTA”, American Massage Therapy Association
 Dr Alex Dimitriu M.D.<br> <span class="job-title">Board-certified Psychiatrist, Founder of Menlo Park Psychiatry and Sleep Medicine</span>
Dr Alex Dimitriu M.D.
Board-certified Psychiatrist, Founder of Menlo Park Psychiatry and Sleep Medicine

Dr. Alex Dimitriu brings a deep respect for science and spirituality into his work. He is board-certified in psychiatry and sleep medicine and specializes in the complex interplay between the mind and body.

Using neuroscience and pharmacology to attain the most efficient and holistic solutions, he helps his patients achieve highly restorative sleep and optimal daytime performance.

Alex has been nationally recognized by The New York Times, Psychology Today, and NBC News. He has brought remarkable outcomes to the most challenging of cases through the optimization of wakefulness and sleep.

Sleep Advisor